Child Seat Restraint Laws and Information
Put them in the right seat, at the right time, and use it the right way.
Sadly, automobile collisions cause the greatest number of deaths for children under age 15 in the United States. And the number one method of preventing death is by the proper use of child seating restraints. For years, whether to use child restraints was a matter of parental discretion. The first safety seat for children—that is, a seat designed specifically to protect a child—was not invented until the early 1960s. Eventually a wide range of restraints emerged (some of which are described below). And with these came federal recommendations (shown below) and state laws. Although state laws vary, most adhere to federal standards and require that infants (children under age one, or under 20 pounds) be placed in rear-facing seats. Similarly, all states except Florida and South Dakota require some form of forward-facing or booster seats for children shorter than four feet and nine inches (that is 57-inches, regardless of age and weight).
NHTSA Child Restraint Recommendations
Birth to at least age one (or 20 pounds)
infant only/rear-facing or convertible seat rear-facing
Age one (or at least 20 pounds) to age four (or 40 pounds)
convertible seat forward facing or forward facing seat or high back booster with harnes
Age four to eight unless 4’ 9” tall
belt-positioning booster or high back
Age eight years and older
Shoulder/lap seat belt
The Types Of Restraints
There are three variables for child seats—age, weight and height of the child—and these variable are applied across various types of restraints:
Rear-facing seats and (infant) rear-facing only seats. Refers to the position where the child's car seat is turned to face the back of the vehicle. The rear-facing position supports the entire head, neck, and back, cradles and moves with the child to reduce stress to the neck and spinal cord in a crash. A rear-facing only seat is a child restraint system designed for use only by a young child in a rear-facing position—also called an “infant-only” seat.
Forward-facing child safety seats (for toddlers; children around the age of learning to walk). A car seat intended for use only in the forward-facing position for a child at least age one and at least 20 pounds up to the specified limits of the seat, set by the manufacturer.
Convertible seats (infant to toddler). A car seat that converts from rear-facing for babies and smaller children to forward-facing for older and larger children.
Booster seats (typically for children under four feet, nine inches). A booster seat correctly positions the seat belt by “boosting” the child so the lap and shoulder belt fit properly. The lap belt should be low and tight across the hips and the shoulder belt should fit cross the chest and not rest against the neck or face. Proper belt fit is very important. Booster seats can have high back (for use in vehicles with no head restraint) or no back/backless (for use in vehicles with head restraints).
Lap/Shoulder Belts (for adults and older children). A lap/shoulder belt is a seat belt secured to the framework of a seat or car and fastening across the lap and shoulder of a driver.
A surprising number of child seat manufacturers have issued recalls for their products. Unless you’re one of the few consumers who register the seat after purchase, your chances of receiving notification or learning about the recall are not good. You can increase your chances of notification by following the NHTSA registration instructions. Or you can search for service bulletins at the NHTSA site.
When Must a Child Seat Be Replaced?
Here’s where you can find a child restraint inspection center.
Like motorcycle helmets and other auto safety equipment, child restraints are considered to have a shelf-life—that is a period of time after which their safety features may be compromised. Most experts agree that as a result of wear and tear, and changes in temperature and exposure (which causes the plastic to crack and lose effectiveness), the shelf life for a child’s seat is approximately six years. In addition, if you car is involved in moderate or severe crash, regardless of whether a child is in the seat, the seat should be replaced. Seats do not need to be replaced in the event of a minor crash—one in which the vehicle could drive away without visible damage, nobody was injured, the airbags did not deploy and the vehicle door near the seat suffered no damage.
Child Restraint and Seat Belt Laws by State
Consult the chart below for an overview of your state's child restraint and seat belt laws. Click on the link to your state to get in-depth information.
|Seat Belt||Child Restraint1||Seat Belt Required2|
|State||Enforcement||First Fine||Required||First Fine||Seats||Ages3||Vehicles Exempted and Other Information4|
||Primary||$25||Age 4 and younger and <40 lbs, child restraint; booster seat until age 65||$25 6||Front||Under 15||Designed for >10 passengers, model year <1965, rural mail carriers, newspaper delivery, vehicles normally operating in reverse.|
||Primary||$15||Age 3 and younger7||$50 8||All||All||School bus, emergency vehicles, mail or newspaper delivery, non-highway vehicles generally (off road or snowmobile).|
||Secondary9||$10||Age 4 and younger||$50||Front||Under 16, all seats||Designed for >10 passengers, model year<1972, rural mail carriers.|
||Secondary10||$25||Age 5 and younger and <60 lbs11||$25-$100||Front||14 and under,all seats||School, church, or public bus; model year <1968; rural postal vehicles.|
||Primary||$20 12||Age 5 and younger or <60 lbs13||$100 14||All||All||Emergency vehicles, rural postal service vehicles, newspaper delivery vehicles, recycling vehicles, taxis.|
||Secondary15||$71 16||Age 5 and younger and <55 inches tall17||$81||Front||Under 16||Passenger bus, school bus, ambulance, postal service vehicles, delivery and pickup services.|
||Primary||$15 18||Ages 1-6 or <60 lbs in child restraint system19||$60||Front||Under 16||Truck or bus >15,000 lbs; public, emergency, and delivery vehicles; postal service vehicles; newspaper delivery vehicles.|
||Primary||$25||Age 7 and younger and 65 lbs or less in age and weight-appropriate restraint; Ages 8-15 or >65 lbs in seat belt||$25||All||All||Postal service vehicles, tractors, off-highway vehicles, electric personal assistive mobility devices.|
||Primary||$50 20||Age 7 and younger||$75 21||All||All||Seating for >8 people, taxis (6 p.m.-6 a.m.), vehicles with 3 wheels or less, farm vehicles.|
||Secondary22||$30||Age 5 and younger23||$60 24||Front||Under 18, allseats||School buses, farm tractors, trash trucks, newspaper delivery vehicles, living space of RVs, public bus or truck >26,000 lbs. The number of passengers of a pickup truck required to wear seat belts shall not exceed the number of installed front seat belts (extra passengers exempted).|
||Primary||$15-$25 25||Age 5 and younger and <58 inches tall26||$50 27||Front||17 and under,all seats||Designed for >10 passengers, pickups, offroad vehicles, vehicles used for frequent stops (all seats), rural postal vehicles, newspaper delivery vehicles, emergency vehicles, driver in reverse, taxis, public transit vehicles. Exemption for pickups applies to passengers over age 18.|
||Primary||$45 28||Age 7 and younger and <57 inches tall; <4 in child restraint29||$100 30||Front||17 and under,all seats||Bus or school bus >10,000 lbs, emergency vehicles, taxicabs. DOT may establish additional exemptions by rule. Persons unable to use a seat belt because all available seat belt assemblies are in use are exempted. In this case, unsecured children must sit in back seat.|
||Secondary||$10||Age 6 and younger||$100 or less31||All||All||>8,000 lbs, mail carriers, implements of husbandry, motorcycles.|
||Primary||$25||Age 7 and younger32||$50 or less||Front||Under 16, allseats||Emergency vehicles, motorcycles, vehicles that stop frequently, rural letter carriers, model year <1964.|
||Primary||$25 or less||Age 7 and younger33||$25 or less34||All||All||Tractor, RV, postal vehicles, school bus, delivery vehicles, taxi, bus, emergency vehicles, antique cars, motorcycles, farm vehicles engaged in farming,|
||Primary||$25||Age 5 and younger35||$25 36||Front||10 and under||Delivery vehicles that do not exceed 25 mph between stops, buses, model year <1965, emergency vehicles, motorcycles, postal vehicles making frequent stops.|
||Secondary; primary as to child <18||$30 37||Age 7 and younger, <80 lbs, and <57 inches tall38||$60 39||Front||All||Designed for >10 people, truck >12,000 lb, off-road vehicles, postal vehicles, vehicles delivering newspapers.|
||Primary40||$25||40 inches tall or less; >7 years and <50 lbs but >40 lbs in booster seat||$50 41||All||All||Designed for >10 people, farm trucks >2,000 lbs, motorcycles.|
||Primary||$25||Age 5 and younger42||$50||Front||12 and under||Vehicles >10,000 lbs, utility vehicles traveling farm vehicles, persons delivering newspapers.|
||Secondary||$25 43||<8 years old unless >57 inches tall||$25||All||All||Buses, trucks 18,000 lbs or more, taxis, utility vehicles, model year <1967, postal vehicles, farm vehicles, taxis, authorized emergency vehicles, side-facing seat in car owned for antique collecting.|
||Primary||$50||<40 lbs in child restraint; age 7 and younger and <80 lbs in booster seat||$50||All44||All||Postal vehicles, passengers riding in taxi or limousine for hire.|
||Primary||$25||Age 7 and younger or <57 inches tall or 65 lbs or less||$25||Outboard||15 and under,all seats||“Historical,” for-hire vehicles, motorcycles, trucks, buses, vehicles delivering mail, vehicles built before June 1, 1964.|
||Primary||$25||<4 years old; age 4 or older but <8 years old if <57 inches tall||$10||Front||15 and under,all seats45||Taxi, bus, school bus, postal service vehicles, model year <1965, commercial vehicles making frequent stops.|
||Secondary||$25||Age 3 and younger||$50 or less||Front||10 and under,all seats46||Farm pickup truck, postal vehicles, commercial vehicles making frequent stops going 25 mph or less between stops, vehicles driving in reverse.|
||Primary||$25 47||Age 3 and younger; in booster seat if >4 but <7 years old and <57 inches tall or <65 lbs||$25||Front||Under 7, allseats||Farm vehicle, bus, postal vehicles, utility meter readers’ vehicles, all-terrain vehicles, vehicles designed to carry >15 persons, trailers.|
||Secondary48||$10||<4 years old or <40 lbs in child restraint; Ages 4-7 and 40 lbs or more but <80 lbs or <57 inches tall in booster seat||$50 or less49||Front||Under 16, allseats||Designed for >10 people, truck >12,000 lbs, postal service vehicles, vehicles requiring frequent entry or exit, agricultural vehicles.50|
||Secondary||$20||<6 years old and <60 lbs||$100 51||All||All||Motorcycle, taxi, vehicles making frequent stops if exemption obtained from State, construction vehicles. Persons who cannot use a seat belt because all belts are in use are exempt.|
||Secondary52||$25||Age 5 and younger||$25||Front||17 and under,all seats||Emergency vehicles, model year <1973, farm tractors and other agricultural equipment, buses, postal vehicles, ambulance or rescue service vehicles.|
||Secondary||$25||Age 5 and younger and 60 lbs or less||$50 53||All||All||Taxi, bus, school bus, postal service vehicles, emergency vehicles, delivery vehicles not exceeding 15 mph, any vehicle or seating position if the State determines compliance is impractical.|
||No adult law||—||Age 5 and younger if <55 inches tall||$50||Under 18 only, all seats||School bus, vehicle for hire, model year <1968, antique cars, vehicles in parade traveling <10 mph.|
||Primary54||$25 55||Age 7 and younger and <80 lbs56||$25 57||All||All||Farm vehicles, postal vehicles, designated commercial vehicles, delivery vehicle traveling <20 mph, trash/recycling truck.|
||Secondary58||$20||Age 6 and younger and <57 inches tall or <80 lbs59||$25 60||Front||17 and under,all seats||Designed for >10 people, farm vehicles, rural mail carriers, all front seat belts in use by other occupants.|
||Primary||$20||Age 7 and younger and <80 lbs61||$10-$25 62||Front||17 and under,all seats||Manufactured before 1966, rural letter carriers, fewer belts than seats.|
||Primary||$25||Age 6 and younger or <60 lbs63||$25||All||All||Vehicles >10,000 lbs, rural letter carriers.|
||Primary||$50-$100 64||Age 6 and younger||$25-$100 65||Front||Under 16, allseats||Bus, school bus, 66 taxi, emergency or delivery vehicle, rural letter carriers.|
||Secondary||$20-$30 67||Age 3 and younger or <40 lbs||$25||Front||4 to 14, allseats68||Postal service vehicles, vehicles delivering newspapers.|
||Primary||$20||Age 5 and younger69||$50 70||Front||12 and under,all seats||Farm vehicles, truck, truck tractor, RV, postal service vehicles. Drivers of school buses, taxicabs, and emergency vehicles are exempt from child restraint law.|
||Primary||$90 or less||<8 years old or <40 lbs and <57 inches tall71||$90||All||All||Vehicles designed for >15 passengers, newspaper, mail, meter, transit vehicles, for-hire vehicles, trash trucks, emergency vehicles, taxicab operators.|
||Secondary||$10 72||Age 7 and younger 73||$100 or less||Front||17 and under||Truck >7,000 lbs, rural letter carriers, delivery vehicles traveling <15 mph. Postal service vehicles.|
||Secondary74||$85||<7 years old, <54 inches tall, and <80 lbs in rear seat75||$85||All||All||Postal service vehicles.|
||Primary76||$25 or less||<6 years old and <80 lbs77||$150 or less||All||All||Emergency vehicles, buses, postal service vehicles, delivery vehicles, parade vehicles, vehicles in which all seating positions with seat belts are already occupied, persons occupying vehicles not originally equipped with seat belts.|
||Secondary78||$20||Age 4 and younger and <40 lbs||$20||Front||17 and under,all seats||Passenger bus, school bus, farm tractors, rural mail carriers, newspaper or periodical deliveries.|
||Primary||$10||<1 year old and <20 lbs; Ages 1-3 and 20 lbs in rear-facing child seat; <8 years old and <57 inches tall in forward- facing child seat||$50||Front||Under 16, all seats79||>8,500 lbs, rural letter carriers, utility workers, newspaper delivery, vehicles in parades, hayrides, or crossing a highway from one field to another if operated at <15 mph.|
||Primary||$25-$50||Age 4 or younger and <36 inches tall||$100- $200||Front||Under 16, all seats80||Farm vehicles >48,000 lbs, postal service vehicles, newspaper delivery, meter readers.|
||Secondary81||$45 or less82||Age 7 or younger and <57 inches tall||$45 or less||All||All||Passengers exempted if all seats are occupied, or person is riding in a seating position not equipped with seat belts.|
||Secondary||$25||Age 7 or younger in child seat83||$25||All||All||Bus, taxi, rural mail carriers, delivery vehicles traveling 15 mph or less, emergency vehicles, farm tractor, vehicle ordered by emergency personnel to evacuate persons from stricken area.|
||Secondary||$25||<8 years old84||$50||Front||Under 16, allseats||Trucks >10,000 lbs, school buses, motor homes, taxis, police vehicles enforcing parking or transporting prisoners, rural mail carriers, newspaper delivery, utility meter readers, commercial vehicles making frequent stops.|
||Primary||$124||<8 years old and <57 inches tall85||$124||All||All||Designed for >10 people, when all designated seating positions are occupied, and vehicles exempted by State regulation, including farm construction, or commercial vehicles making frequent stops.|
||Secondary||$25 or less||Age 7 or younger and <57 inches tall86||$10-$20||Front||Under 18, allseats seats||Designed for >10 people, rural mail carriers, trailers.|
||Secondary||$10||Age 7 or younger, 80 lbs or less, <57 inches tall87||$30-$75 88||Front||All89||Taxis, farm trucks engaged in farming, emergency vehicles, rural mail carriers, land surveyors.|
||Secondary90||$25 91||Age 8 or younger; in rear seat if available92||$50||All||All||Postal vehicles, excess passengers if all seats are occupied.|
1 May include rear-facing child restraint seats, forward-facing child restraint seats, and booster seats.
2 Many States exempt persons who for medical reasons cannot use a seat belt and vehicles not originally required to be equipped with seat belts.
3 The word “all” used in this category means that everyone in the vehicle must be restrained. For children, that may be in a child restraint.
4 Exemptions for emergency vehicles and buses generally do not apply to the driver.
5 Child restraint law: rear-facing seat until 1 year or 20 lbs; forward-facing child restraint until 5 years or 40 lbs; booster seat until 6 years.
6 First violation, 1 point; second or subsequent violation, 2 points.
7 Children >3 years old but <16 years old must be restrained in a device appropriate for children of that age, as determined by the U.S. Department of Transportation.
8 Two points for child restraint violation.
9 Law enforcement may stop a vehicle for an apparent violation of the child restraint law as to children under age 5.
10 If motorist is wearing belt when stopped for another violation, the fine for that violation is reduced by $10.
11 Children 6 years or >60 lbs may be in a seat belt.
12 Court may substitute traffic safety school for fine with regard to first offense. Fine for second and subsequent offenses is $50.
13 <1 year or <20 lbs or in rear-facing restraint may not ride in front if front passenger air bag is activated; <60 lbs in rear seat if available.
14 One point for child restraint violation; operators liable for children <16 years not wearing seat belt or proper child safety restraint.
15 Primary enforcement for child safety restraints.
16 Fine for first offense by minor driver is $65.
17 <1 year and <20 lbs in rear-facing restraint system; ages 1-3 and 20-39 lbs in forward-facing child safety seat; ages 4-5 and <55 inches tall in booster seat.
18 If driver under age 18 commits a violation, he/she is subject to a $75 fine.
19 Booster seats may only be used in a seating position with a lap and shoulder belt. Younger than 1 year or <20 lbs in rear-facing restraint system; 4 years and older or under 4 years and <40 lbs in student “transportation” (not a school bus) in child seat or belt. First or second violation: violator required to attend a child car seat safety course offered or approved by the Department of Motor Vehicles.
20 Plus 2 points on license record.
21 Alternatively, the driver may opt to take a child restraint safety class for $25. In either case, 2 points on driver’s record.
22 Primary enforcement for violations of child safety restraint law.
23 Children age 3 or younger must be restrained in child safety seat; children ages 4-5 may be restrained in safety seat or by seat belt.
24 Three points assessed against the driver’s record.
25 If minor violates seat belt law, the driver may be fined $25.
26 For children 40 lbs or more, child restraint requirement satisfied if restrained in the rear seat by a seat belt (may be lap belt if 3-point belts are unavailable or already being used by other children >40 lbs; if no rear seat belt complies, child may be properly restrained in front seat in compliance with the requirements). Age 5 and younger must be in rear seat if available.
27 First violation, 1 point; second or subsequent violation, 2 points.
28 In addition to the $45 fine, the driver must pay a surcharge of $10 for the neurotrauma special fund.
29 Children ages 4-7 exempted if >57 inches tall or >40 pounds and traveling in a motor vehicle equipped only with lap belts, without shoulder straps, in the back seat.
30 First-time violator also required to attend class on child passenger restraint system (not to exceed 4 hours in length), pay $50 driver education safety assessment fee, and pay $10 surcharge into neurotrauma fund.
31 Punishable by a fine not exceeding $100; typically, total fine is $60, including all add-on costs.
32 Everyone younger than 19 must be restrained if driver is <18. Children >40 lbs may use lap belt in rear seat if no 3-point belt is available.
33 Child >40 lbs may be restrained by lap seat belt if: (1) the motor vehicle is not equipped with lap and shoulder seat belts; or (2) not including the operator’s seat and front passenger seat, all lap and shoulder seat belts are being used to properly restrain other children <16 years. Child <8 years may be exempt if the child cannot reasonably fit within a child safety restraint. Child restraint law applies only to drivers with Indiana license.
34 Four points also assessed on driving record.
35 <1 year and <20 lbs in rear-facing child seat; 3 years or older but <6 years old may be secured in child restraint, seat belt, or seat harness.
36 First offenders who prove purchase or acquisition of child restraint system shall not be convicted.
37 For driver or passenger >17 years old; $60 for children ages 14-17.
38 If number of children subject to these requirements exceeds number of passenger-securing locations available for use by children and all passenger-securing locations are in use by children, the requirement is waived for the additional children.
39 $10 plus court costs waived if offender purchases or obtains an appropriate child restraint.
40 Seat belt roadblocks prohibited. Belt violations not on driving record.
41 For violation related to booster seat requirement for children >7 years old, law enforcement currently issues warning for first violation; after July 1, 2009, first violation will result in $30 fine.
42 <1 year or <20 lbs in rear-facing child seat; ages 1-3 or 20-39 lbs in forward-facing child seat; ages 4-5 or 40-60 lbs in booster seat.
43 Operator may be fined additional $25 if allowing anyone <16 and >12 years old to ride unrestrained.
44 Everyone in school bus equipped with seat belts must use them.
45 Driver does not have to comply with this requirement if the number of children to be secured exceeds the number of seat belts available. Unsecured children must be seated in other than the front seat, and all front seat passengers must be secured. In the case of pickup trucks where all seat belts are being used and where such vehicles do not have an extended cab or jump seats, unsecured children may be transported in the front seat without a seat belt.
46 Seat belt requirement does not apply to persons riding in vehicle where all available seat belt positions are occupied.
47 Driver may be fined only for violation by the driver, a front seat passenger, or a child <7 years old required to wear a seat belt.
48 Primary for children <16 years old.
49 Plus court costs; but charges dismissed or withdrawn if driver prior to hearing provides evidence of acquisition of an appropriate child seat.
50 Persons <18 years old operating or riding in a truck are required to wear a seat belt.
51 Plus court costs.
52 Only secondary enforcement unless the violation involves a person <18 years old riding in or on any portion of the vehicle not designed or intended for the use of passengers or for children age 5 or younger.
53 Conceivably, the fine could be as high as $500, but $50 is typical.
54 For driver and front seat passengers only; secondary for rear seat occupants.
55 Front seat passengers and drivers must also pay $50 in court fees; fine for rear seat passenger is $10 and no court costs; secondary enforcement of violations occurring in the rear seat.
56 In vehicles with front side passenger air bags, child <5 years and <40 lb shall be properly secured in the rear seat unless the child restraint system is designed for use with air bags. If no lap and shoulder belt, children 40-80 lbs may be in lap belts.
57 Two points for conviction, but entire penalty is waived upon proof of acquisition of child restraint device.
58 Primary enforcement for all positions if occupant is <18 years.
59 Age 6 or younger and 40 lbs or more may be restrained in lap belt if no lap/shoulder belts available; requirement to use either child restraint system or seat belt does not apply to a child being transported in an emergency situation.
60 Two points assessed.
61 Must be seated in rear seat if seats available.
62 Fine suspended on proof of possession of a child restraint system.
63 <1 year in rear-facing infant seat, seated in the rear seat if available; ages 1-4 or <40 lbs in child safety seat; ages 5-6 or <60 lbs in booster seat; ages 7-12 in adult seat belt.
64 Plus 3 points on license record if violation involves child <16 years old. Front seat passengers 16 years or older can be fined up to $50 and drivers can be fined up to $100 for each passenger <16 years not wearing seat belt.
65 Plus 3 points for any violation involving use of seat belts or seats by a child <16 years old.
66 School buses sold in the State must be equipped with seat belts. Boards of Education, via regulations, may provide that on school buses under their jurisdiction, seat belts shall be used when buses are in operation; passengers <4 years in school buses must be restrained in child safety restraints.
67 Fines are $20 for passenger violating law, $30 for driver.
68 Law is secondary for children ages 4-14.
69 Children >40 lbs may be belted in rear seat by a lap belt if vehicle not equipped with lap and shoulder belts or when lap and shoulder belts are being used by other children.
70 Plus court costs.
71 <1 year or <20 lbs in rear-facing child safety seat; children <40 lbs in child safety seat; >40 lbs but 57 inches tall or less in safety system that elevates the child so that an adult seat belt fits properly.
72 Pennsylvania’s fine is $10, but with court, EMS, judicial, and computer costs the ticket total is $51.50.
73 Secondary enforcement for children ages 4-7 who must be in booster seats.
74 Primary enforcement for drivers and occupants <18 years old.
75 Children <7 years old but >54 inches or >80 lbs in adult seat belt in rear seat if available. Children <6 years old must be in rear seat if seat available.
76 Seat belt law may not be enforced by checkpoints designed for that purpose. Seat belt law does not apply to an occupant if all belts in the vehicle are used by other occupants.
77 <1 year or <20 lbs in rear-facing infant seat; age 5 or younger and >40 lbs but <80 lbs in booster seat; ages 1-5 and >80 lbs in seat belt. Child <6 years old must be in child safety seat unless the knees bend over the seat edge when sitting up straight against the seat back, in which case use of seat belt is permitted. (Note: Up to $150 fine, but may be waived with acquisition of child restraint.)
78 Primary enforcement for all seating positions with occupant <18 years old.
79 Drivers ages 16-17 must wear seat belts, but driver cannot be fined for failure of passenger >16 years old to wear seat belt.
80 Seat belt requirement does not apply to passenger occupying a position without a seat belt.
81 Primary enforcement for all seating positions if driver or passenger is 18 years or younger.
82 Reduced to $15 upon completion of class; standard enforcement for children 18 years or younger.
83 <1 year or <20 lbs in rear-facing child seat; ages 2-7 in child passenger restraining system, <16 years old in seat belts.
84 Children age 4 or older may be belted if their weight, size, or physical fitness makes use of a child restraint device impractical. (Certifying doctor’s information must be kept in vehicle.)
85 Drivers transporting children <13 years old shall transport them in the back seat of the vehicle whenever practical to do so.
86 If all seat belts in vehicle are being used at the time of examination by law officer and vehicle contains more passengers than the total number of seat belts or other safety devices as installed in compliance with Federal motor vehicle safety standards, the driver may not be considered in violation.
87 Children <1 year or <20 lbs in rear-facing child seats in back seat; ages 1-3, weighing 20 lbs or more but <40 lbs in forward-facing child seats in back seat if possible; ages 4-7, 80 lbs or less and 57 inches tall or less in booster seats.
88 Assessment is $10-$25 for children ages 4-7; first assessment waived upon proof of acquisition and installation of child restraint.
89 Rear seat occupants must wear seat belt at any position where a shoulder harness is installed.
90 If motorist is wearing belt when stopped for another violation, the fine for that violation is reduced by $10.
91 Passengers violating seat belt requirements are subject to a fine of $10.
92 Children exempted from booster seat requirement if lap and shoulder belts fit properly across collarbone, chest, and hips of the child and do not pose danger to child’s neck, face, or abdominal area in the event of a crash or sudden stop.